The prices of the excursions include guides, travel to and from Madrid, lodging, meals and extra activities (with the exception of optional ones).
The month of July corresponds to summer in Spain and temperatures are usually high. Appropriate clothing and sunscreen are always a must. Summer storms cannot be ruled out in mountain areas.


  1. The southern Iberian Range (E of Spain)

    Four-day excursion (July 17-20)

    Max. number of participants: 25

    Guides: Manuel B. Crespo (University of Alicante) & Javier Fabado (Valencian Botanic Garden)

    The most interesting high-mountain ecosystems in the southern part of Sistema Ibérico (Iberian Mountain Range) will be visited. We will leave the high-speed train station in Madrid bound for Cuenca, where the route will begin to move southeast from the humid high-mountain ecosystems (both on siliceous and calcareous substrates) to the coastal areas of Valencia, crossing numerous habitats of biological interest in the most emblematic mountains of the southern Iberian range, from about 2,000 m elevation down to sea level. In this vast area, over 3,500 taxa can be found including many Iberian endemics, some of which show very narrow distributions and are expected to be observed in habitat.

    The itinerary will follow a bioclimatic and biogeographic gradient from the sub-Mediterranean Iberian continental humid inland forests dominated by different pines and deciduous or marcescent oaks, through the coastal lowlands with Valencian-Tarragonensian dry oak groves and thorny shrubland vegetation near the sea. Along with the regional plant biodiversity we also will experience a diversity of cultural heritage that defines this outstanding territory of eastern Spain.

    Details about the excursion: The daily routes will include short trips by coach, alternating with short hiking routes of little difficulty, accessible for all participants (i.e., slight slopes). Hiking boots, raincoats and outdoor clothing (just in case) as well as sun protection are recommended.

  2. The Western Pyrenees: Irati beech forest – Larra karst nature reserve

    Four-day excursion (July 17-20)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Javier Loidi, Itziar García Mijangos, Idoia Biurrun & Juan Antonio Campos (University of the Basque Country)

    The excursion will depart by high-speed train to the city of Zaragoza and then will continue by bus to make a itinerary starting from the central Ebro Basin to visit three valleys of the Western Pyrenees (Northeastern Navarre). This trip will cross through a spectacular transition from the subarid Ebro basin, in the Mediterranean region to the humid and hyperhumid areas of the upper levels of the Pyrenees, in the Eurosiberian region, with elevations up to 2,500 m. The visited area is mostly formed by base-rich substrates of Tertiary and Mesozoic materials, mostly limestone and marl, which emerged during the Alpine orogeny. The region is dotted with protected areas of different levels and extension that try to preserve a flora of more than 3,000 species and the corresponding fauna. We will visit a variety of habitat types, from gypsum scrub and other types of calcareous scrub typical of the central Iberian zone, temperate and Mediterranean grasslands, Quercus coccifera or Buxus sempervirens shrublands, and various types of forests: beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), holm oak and oak groves (Quercus rotundifolia, Q. pubescens), pine groves (Pinus sylvestris, P. uncinata), fir groves (Abies alba), etc. We will focus on the regional flora, types of vegetation, environmental conditions, and the cultural heritage that we will find along the way.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will include some short and easy hiking trails up to 12 km long with an elevation range of up to 500 m. Hiking boots, raincoats and outdoor clothing are required.

  3. Cantabrian Mixed Forests ecoregion (NW Spain)

    Five-day excursion (July 16-20)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Borja Jiménez-Alfaro (University of Oviedo), Luis Carlón (Atlantic Botanic Garden, Gijón) & Estrella Alfaro (University of León)

    We will arrive by high-speed train to the city of León, and then we will make a botanical itinerary through the Cantabrian Mixed Forest Ecoregion, crossing the Cantabrian Mountains towards the Cantabrian Sea. This ecoregion contains some of the wildest and less known natural areas of Spain, supporting more than 3,000 plant species, a high diversity of ecosystems and the last populations of flagship conservation species like endemic brown bear and capercaillie. The Cantabrian mountains were originated during the alpine orogeny together with the Pyrenees and the Alps. They form a biogeographical hub for Mediterranean and Eurosiberian floras in Southern Europe, with elevations up to 2,600 m. Our itinerary will follow a biogeographic gradient from continental Mediterranean to oceanic Eurosiberian ecosystems, and will look at the diversity of regional flora, vegetation and cultural heritage.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will include short hiking trails up to 10 km long with an elevation range up to 500 m. Hiking boots, raincoats and outdoor wear are needed.

  4. Balearic Islands (Mallorca and Cabrera)

    Five-day excursion (July 16-20)

    Max. number of participants: 15

    Guides: Juan Rita, Joana Cursach, Joshua Borràs (University of Balearic Islands) & Miquel Capó (Polytechnic University of Madrid).

    The excursion will depart from Madrid by plane to begin on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Mallorca is a Mediterranean island with a relatively old human population (4,500 years BP). Despite being very humanized and being an international tourist center, it conserves very well-preserved natural spaces that are an extraordinary representation of the Mediterranean landscape. The itineraries will take place during three days in the Sierra de Tramuntana, included in the UNESCO World Heritage list. A fourth day will be dedicated to visiting the Cabrera Archipelago National Park. Representative places of the main plant communities of the island will be visited: forests of Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Olea europaea, etc. Special attention will be paid to plant communities that are particularly rich in plants endemic to mountain tops and coastal areas. Likewise, relictual communities with Laurus nobilis, etc. will be observed. The excursions will be complemented with complementary activities: a night visit to the historic center of Palma and to a traditional house and garden in the mountains of Mallorca.

    Details about the excursion: Two of the excursions will have a medium/high technical requirement, descending more than 500 m of altitude. It is essential to have adequate clothing and footwear and the ability to walk in mountain areas. Boat trips are also expected on two of the excursions. Bathing suit and diving glasses are recommended.

  5. Tenerife Island

    Six-day excursion (July 14-19)

    Max. number of participants: 25

    Guides: Jairo Patiño (Institut of Natural Products and Agrobiology, CSIC) & J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort (La Orotava Acclimatization Garden)

    Tenerife Island is the largest and most biodiverse of the Canary archipelago, considered a hotspot in itself within the Mediterranean Basin Hotspot. Through a botanical itinerary, we will show how geology, geography and environment can determine the assembly of oceanic island floras. We will visit all the main ecosystems of the Canarian archipelago, from the dry coastal scrubs, sclerophyllous woodlands, and cloud laurel forests to the pine forests and summit montane shrublands. The ultimate goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding on the role of climate, geographic and anthropogenic factors in shaping plant biodiversity on a volcanic island. Aspects related to the Canarian culture and traditions will also be an important aspect of the itineraries.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will depart from Madrid by plane to land on Tenerife. The schedule includes short hiking trails (easy to medium level) up to 10 km long with an elevation range of up to 1,000 m. Depending on the weather conditions, some routes could reach a higher level as they take place during the summer months, ranging from hot and dry to cold and quite wet conditions throughout the same day. Good hiking shoes and clothing, protection from the sun including sunscreen, and rain gear are therefore recommended.


  1. Trip to meet the flora of a high Mediterranean mountain: Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid)

    One-day excursion (July 28th)

    Max. number of participants: 50

    Guides: Modesto Luceño Garcés (University Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla) & Pablo Vargas Gómez (Royal Botanical Garden, Madrid).

    This excursion is designed for those that enjoy walking in mountains and learning the life of Mediterranean plants. Indeed, the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama offers around 1,500 species arranged in four vegetation belts. A circular route by bus from Madrid (620 m) up to reach two mountain passes at the heart the Sierra de Guadarrama: Puerto de Cotos and then Puerto de Navacerrada.

    The first stop will be at Monastery of El Paular (1,159 m), the historic Benedictine-Carthusian monastery of Santa María de El Paular. A short walk will let us observe the flora of streams and the vegetation of the two lower vegetation belts: the Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) belt (600-800 m) and rebollo oak (Q. pyrenaica) belt (800-1,700 m). A small visitor center helps understand the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. We could also appreciate the architecture of the old Benedictine-Carthusian founded in 1390. The second stop will be at Puerto de Cotos (1,830 m). During the bus climb to this mountain pass, the vegetation of the two upper vegetation belts of the Sierra de Guadarrama will be briefly described: the oromediterranean belt (1700-2100 m), dominated by the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), mountain broom ( oromediterraneus) and mountain juniper (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis), and the cryoromediterranean belt (2,100-2,428 m), characterized by pastures on the top of Mediterranean mountains.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion involves a circular trip by bus through two mountain passes of the Sierra de Guadarrama. Walking tours can be low to medium level. It is recommended to wear appropriate clothing and footwear for a journey through high mountains.

  2. Field trip to enjoy about typical landscapes and flora of the Mediterranean mountains: eastern sector of the Central System (Madrid-Riaza)

    One-day excursion (July 28th)

    Max. number of participants: 50

    Guides: Felipe Martínez García (Polytechnic University of Madrid) & Juan Antonio Calleja (Autonomous University of Madrid).

    We aim to provide an opportunity to enjoy typical Mediterranean landscapes, both natural and semi-natural, of the mountainous interior of Spain, while also recognizing characteristic plant communities and vascular and non-vascular species. The landscapes of the southern and northern slopes of the Central System will be interpreted from the bus along a marked altitudinal gradient. Then, we will walk through unique sites with Mediterranean but also of Atlantic affinity communities and plants such as the holly (Ilex aquifolium) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) patches or forests.

    The route will begin in the Acebeda de Robregordo, with a pleasant circular walk (from 1,300 up to 1,480 m) across a communal cattle pasture (dehesa boyal), a mosaic of pastures and woody communities with species from high Mediterranean mountains and from template European plains can be enjoyed. Afterwards, a visit to the oak-beech forest of La Pedrosa will include a beautiful walk (3.7 km) to meet the vegetation and flora of the north face of the Sierra de Ayllón. Thirdly, the trip will arrive at the historic town of Riaza (1,187 m), located in the province of Segovia, at the northern slope of the Central System.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion consists in a circular trip by bus and three easy walking tours. It is recommended to wear appropriate clothing and footwear for a journey through high mountains and solar protection.

  3. Ethnobotanical landscapes of Sierra Norte de Madrid: “dehesas” and homegardens.

    One-day excursion (July 28th)

    Max. number of participants: 50

    Guides: Laura Aceituno-Mata (La Troje Association, Madrid), Manuel Pardo de Santayana (Autonomous University of Madrid).

    This ethnobotanical journey will be dedicated to understanding the traditional landscapes in the vicinity of the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama and the Sierra del Rincón Biodiversity Reserve, as well as visiting projects focused on the conservation of biocultural diversity. Our objective will be to elucidate the current landscapes and their relationship with both extant and abandoned human activities. We will observe managed oak forests (Quercus rotundifolia and Q. pyrenaica), ash forests (Fraxinus angustifolia), pine plantations, and rock rose scrublands (Cistus ladanifer). Additionally, the ethnobotanical uses of the most relevant species will also be presented.

    Our first stop will be in Montejo de la Sierra, a small village of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rincón, that has preserved much of its traditional architecture. We will visit a traditional homegarden, a refuge of biocultural diversity where bean landraces, ancient fruit tree varieties and the traditional irrigation system, “regueras”, a heritage of Al-Andalus in Madrid, are still conserved. The second stop will be in Prádena del Rincón, where we will visit the project “Rincón silvestre”, where medicinal plants are produced and processed, traditional knowledge is transferred in courses and a Crop Wild Relatives conservation field is maintained. Finally, we will visit an ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) “dehesa” in El Berrueco, a well conservated forest commons of medieval origin where the traditional communal management system is still alive.

    Details about the excursion: The trip will take place by bus departing and arriving in Madrid. It is recommended to wear appropriate clothing and footwear for a journey in the field. Solar protection is essential since high temperatures are expected.

  4. Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y las Villas Natural Park (Andalusia, SE Spain)

    Four-day excursion (July 28-31)

    Max. number of participants: 20

    Guides: Sandra García de Lucas (Torre del Vinagre Botanic Garden) et al.

    The excursion will cover part of the mountain ranges included in the Sierras of Cazorla, Segura and las Villas Natural Park, with the aim of knowing different plant communities and some of the most characteristic endemics of this Natural Park and the southeast Iberian Peninsula. The goal of this excursion is to know as much diversity as possible of flora, vegetation and landscape, by means of jeeps and medium-level walks.

    The Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y las Villas Natural Park, with more than 210,000 ha, is the largest natural protected area in the Iberian Peninsula, being the second largest in Europe. This conservation area is an impressive sight with its sheer mid-mountain reliefs and also stands out for the singularity of its flora (with a high number of endemic and rare species) and ecosystems of high ecological relevance, such as the high mountain areas (refuge for many endemic and threatened species), the different forests (many of them with relict and very rare plant communities) and the wet areas, associated with the abundant river flows in these mountain ranges.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will take place by bus departing and arriving in Madrid. Some days include short hiking trails of medium difficulty. The high summer temperatures in the Jaén province should be considered, as the average maximum temperatures in July in Cazorla reaches 34 ºC. Comfortable clothes, mountain boots, and sun protection are recommended.

  5. Sierra Nevada mountain (SE Spain)

    Four-day excursion (July 28-31)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Juan Lorite (University of Granada) et al

    We will make a botanical itinerary through the Sierra Nevada conservation area (Granada, SE Spain). Sierra Nevada is an isolated high mountain range, more than 700 km away from other comparable mountains ranges in terms of maximum altitude (Pyrenees, High and Middle Atlas). This mountain marks the southernmost limit of the influence of the Quaternary glaciations in Europe, when it was covered by glaciers only in the areas above 2,500 m, while large areas remained free of permanent ice. All this contributed to make Sierra Nevada a refuge for many plant species during glacial ages, as well as for isolated populations that have evolved under particular conditions, such as specific soil types or isolated summit habitats. This has promoted speciation, resulting in a high number of species with an outstanding proportion of plant endemics. For this reason, it is considered one of the most important plant biodiversity hotspots within the Mediterranean region. Visits to appreciate the Arab cultural heritage in Granada are also planned.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will take place by bus departing and arriving in Madrid. It will involve easy to medium walks and off-road tours. Heat protection, comfortable shoes and somewhat warm clothing for the high mountains are highly recommended.

  6. The Western Baetic Mountains (S Iberian Peninsula, Andalusia).

    Four-day excursion (July 28-31)

    Max. number of participants: 15

    Guides: Andrés V. Pérez Latorre, Federico Casimiro-Soriguer, Noelia Hidalgo Triana & Baltasar Cabezudo (University of Málaga).

    We will head to the Sierra de las Nieves protection area, a recently declared National Park. This park is located in the Serranía de Ronda, the highest mountainous area in southwestern Europe and consists of three Mediterranean biogeographical zones with siliceous, calcareous-dolomitic and ultramafic substrates and four bioclimatic belts, reaching up to 1,919 m asl. The flora consists of 1,387 vascular taxa and 250 bryophytes. The itinerary includes a tour through different plant communities, highlighting the Spanish fir forests (Abies pinsapo), the ‘dehesas’ of mountain gall oak (Quercus faginea), hyper-xeric juniper shrublands and the juniper and cushion scrublands of the high mountains. We will also head to the southernmost point of continental Europe in the Natural Park of Los Alcornocales, to observe the most extensive cork oak European forest (Quercus suber) and the relict vegetation of Atlantic and Tertiary affinity, with biogeographical connections in the nearby North Africa (Aljibe-Tanger area). Also, we set off for the largest ultramafic outcrop in the Western Mediterranean (Sierra Bermeja), an edaphic island made up of peridotites from the terrestrial mantle and with the category of biogeographical sector. Here we can observe the serpentine ecosystems, with their endemic species and the special soils they inhabit, as well as the adaptations (serpentinomorphoses and hyperaccumulation of heavy metals) of the plants. In the upper part of the sierra, we will be able to observe the relict Spanish fir forest and the views towards the Strait of Gibraltar. From there, return to Malaga and the next day to the place of origin. During the itinerary we will appreciate the cultural landscape and the architectural heritage of Andalusian cities.

    Details about the excursion: The itinerary will depart from Ronda after a high-speed train ride from Madrid and a bus trip from Málaga. The excursion will be carried out by 4x4 vehicles and walking tours will be smooth. Hiking clothes and sun protection will be necessary.

  7. Central-Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain), forests and grasslands in a changing landscape.

    Five-day excursion (July 28 to August 1)

    Max. number of participants: 25

    Guides: Aaron Pérez Haase & Estela Illa Bachs (University of Barcelona)

    The Pyrenean mountains have a long history of botanical exploration, and a high diversity of plant species has been recorded. The Pyrenees are the main alpine mountain range in Spain and, among a dominant European temperate flora, it holds a large number of boreo-alpine and Mediterranean species. We will reflect on the historical and climatic features that shaped the Pyrenean diverse landscapes, which are dramatically changing, and look at some research experiments and pilot restoration sites of high-mountain ecosystems. We will make a diverse botanical itinerary, which will include Atlantic montane mixed forests, and high-mountain pine forests, heaths, grasslands and wetlands. We will cross the main axis of the Pyrenees, from regions under Atlantic influence to others under Mediterranean climate. Finally, we will save time to visit some places of high cultural values in the mountains and the renowned city of Barcelona.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will start at Lleida (two hours by high-speed train from Madrid) and will return to Madrid from Barcelona. Good physical condition is required. Cap, w alking boots, sun cream, coat and waterproof clothing.

  8. Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, Pyrenees (N Spain)

    Five-day excursion (July 28 to August 1)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Daniel Gómez & Pablo Tejero (Pyrenean Institute of Ecology, CSIC) (other colleagues to confirm)

    We will make a botanical itinerary through the central part of the Pyrenees in the region of Aragon. Our trip will focus in Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park that hosts the highest calcareous mountains in Europe. There are recorded around 4,000 plant species in the Pyrenees, about one third of the European flora and half of Iberian flora. Concretely, in the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park there are circa 1,400 plant species and it is by far the most intensively prospected area in Iberia and hosts a large proportion of the hundred Pyrenean plant endemics.

    Despite of intense focus on the flora and vegetation of the Central Pyrenees, we will illustrate the transition from dry steeps (i.e. gypsum habitats), towards Mediterranean ecosystems on the way to and from Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park. Besides, we want to include a geological approximation to complement the understanding of the territory and its natural history during the explanations. The excursion will integrate different cultural approaches, some directly related to the ancestral heritage of the territory, others more historical and architectural

    Details about the excursion: The itinerary will depart from Zaragoza after a high-speed train ride from Madrid, and from there it will continue by bus and in all-terrain vehicles. The excursion will include two days of hiking up to 10 km long with an elevation range up to 500 m, so good physical condition is required. It is expected high temperatures, although concrete climatic condition might be unpredictable. Hiking boots, sun protection, raincoats and outdoor wear are needed.

  9. Western Iberian Central Range and Serra da Arrábida (CW Iberian Peninsula, Spain and Portugal)

    Five-day excursion (July 28 to August 1)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Rosario Gavilán (Complutense University of Madrid) & Catarina Meireles (University of Évora).

    The Iberian Central System or Iberian Central Range, is a long mountain chain stretching for around 600 km which divides latitudinally the Iberian plateau into two halves. Its structure and features are the result of Hercynian movements being shaped by the alpine orogeny when vast areas of these mountains underwent the intense and active erosive action of glaciers, mainly on the summit areas of the highest mountains east to west (Ayllón, Guadarrama, Gredos, Estrêla). The interesting bioclimatic complexity of the territory is a result of the dissymmetry between the northern and southern slopes (with average values of 1,200 vs. 400 m), and their lithological homogeneity, dominated by plutonic igneous and –to a lesser extent– metamorphic rocks. All these factors shape the landscape in these mountain territories. The natural vegetation in these mountains has a woodland character, except in the summit areas above the tree line, which are characterized by Mediterranean orophytic grasslands. The extensive deforestation –more pronounced in the westernmost areas– and historic afforestation programs shape the actual landscape of these great mountains.

    The excursion will try to make an overview of the flora and vegetation of the western mountain ranges of the Iberian Central System -Spain and Portugal- from the plains to the foothills and to the mid- to high mountain areas. In addition, the study of an interesting mountain range (Serra da Arrábida), near Lisbon, of limestone lithological character, is included in our trip.

    The three target places to study are two important mountain ranges included in the Iberian Central System. Traveling from Madrid to the west: Sierra de Gredos (Spain) and Serra da Estrela (Portugal) both with acidic soils; finally, southern, close to Lisbon, we will visit Serra da Arrabida, an small but important limestone mountain range facing to Tagus river estuarine area

    Details about the excursion: This is an itinerant bus tour with gentle walks every day. Footwear and field clothing, as well as sun protection are required.

  10. La Gomera, Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands)

    Seven-day excursion (July 28 to August 3)

    Max. number of participants: 20

    Guides: Ángel Fernández (Garajonay National Park).

    La Gomera is one of the small Islands in the Canary archipelago with about 360 km2, a maximum altitude of 1,486 m, and about 20.000 inhabitants, being the only island without recent lava fields. Prominently, La Gomera has impressive mountainous landscapes, full of deep gorges, extraordinary examples of volcanic dykes and domes, and other geological elements of volcanic origin. It is the island with the best-preserved representations of cloud laurel forests, especially in Garajonay National Park. Plant communities of La Gomera include the most extensive remains of sclerophyllous open woodlands of juniper, canarian palm groves (Phoenix canariensis), and subdesertic and dry coastal shrublands. The island also harbors the highest density of endemic plants in the Canarian archipelago. Cultural terraced landscapes and its popular traditions including its whistle language still alive add interest to the visit.

    The botanical itinerary will show how geography, environment and human impacts have shaped the vegetation and plant biodiversity in this volcanic island. Aspects related to the Canarian water and land management, plant conservation and habitat restoration projects will also be present.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will depart from Madrid by plane to land on Tenerife and then move to La Gomera. The tour of the island will be done using a minibus and 4x4 cars. The walks will range from easy to demanding. Good walking shoes, varied clothing for heat, cold and rain. Bathing suit and diving glasses are recommended.

  11. Atlas Mountains and continental Macaronesia in Morocco

    Seven-day excursion (July 28 to August 3)

    Max. number of participants: 30

    Guides: Anass Terrab Benjelloun (University of Sevilla) & Mohamed Abdelaziz (University of Granada).

    We will make a botanical itinerary through southern Atlas ranges and Macaronesian region of Morocco. The trip will start in Marrakesh, one of the most important historic cities in Morocco. From there we will cross the High Atlas Mountains through the Tizi N´Test (2,100 m). High Atlas is the highest range in northern Africa and in it we can found some of the most singular and meridional Mediterranean plant communities, that in the south face of the range already contact with some Saharian flora. Then we will visit Antiatlas Mountains, the range limiting the rest of the country with the Sahara desert. This range is the point where flora from arid areas of the country contacts with Mediterranean and Macaronesian formations. Moreover, here we will visit some petroglyphs that will let us figure out the flora and fauna inhabiting this area thousands of years ago. In a hike here we will also have the opportunity to visit some of the scarce ‘dragon trees’ (Dracaena draco) populations in the Antiatlas. The Southern Atlantic coast of Morocco is part of the Macaronesian region (the only continental) and there we can find some interesting plant communities shared with the Atlantic oceanic islands. Finally, the trip will continue to Agadir and Essaouira, where we will have the opportunity to explore the coastal formation between these cities including Juniperus, Tetraclinis and Argania forests, including a visit to understand the social impact of these forests in the area.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will depart from the airport Madrid Barajas to Marrakech, returning to Madrid-Barajas airport from Agadir. The trip through Morocco will be done by bus, and the walking tours will be easy or of medium difficulty. Very high temperatures will be present, so clothing to avoid sunstroke is necessary. Swimwear and binoculars are recommended.

  12. Iberian pteridoflora expedition

    Four-day excursion (July 28-31)

    Max. number of participants: 20

    Guides: Sonia Molino, Mario Mairal, Guillermo Santos (Complutense University of Madrid) & Luis G. Quintanilla (Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid).

    This four-day excursion promises an exploration of some of the region's most semi-pristine and fern species-rich ecosystems in Europe. We will depart from Madrid to Galicia to arrive at the Fraga del Río Mandeo, a typical Atlantic forest. Further, we will visit the Fragas do Eume, one of Europe's most pristine Atlantic riparian forests, and amazing environment for fern enthusiasts, with about 27 fern species. We will explore the Fraga de Landoi, a hazelnut forest rich in ferns, and the Garita de Vixía Herbeira viewpoint, which will treat us to the unique flora of serpentines. Our final day takes us to the beech forest of Busmayor in Ponferrada. Amidst the towering Fagus sylvatica trees, we'll encounter a diverse fern community. This meticulously crafted itinerary promises an immersive experience for fern enthusiasts and nature lovers alike.

    Details about the excursion: The excursion will take place by bus departing and arriving in Madrid. It will involve easy to medium walks. Hand lenses, hiking boots, raincoats and outdoor wear are needed.